In the power drive system of the Electric Vehicles (EVs)
and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), High Voltage (HV) cables play a major
role in evaluating the EMI of the whole system. Transfer impedance (

The Transfer impedance (

In this paper, further improvements in the GPM have been proposed. To
increase the measureable frequency range of

Apart from the measurement of

Comparison of test setups for

In this paper, an approach to build a simulation model based on cable
geometry, cable materials, and transmission line theory has been proposed.
Additionally, the simulation models have been used to show the effect of
geometric variations, i.e. braid parameters (e.g. braid-wire thickness and
weave angle on

In this paper, Sect. 2 compares the existing measurement methods and gives
details of the improved GPM, Sect. 3 describes the combination of
analytical and circuit models, and Sect. 4 gives suggestions to improve

Due to the complex structure of the braided shield, analytical models are
not sufficient to describe

GPM: Improved way of making Far-end connection.

The two-port measurement setup of GPM can be seen in Fig. 1c. The cable
shield is fixed to metal brackets, which are connected to the ground plane
(copper-plate). It is important that all connections have very low impedance.
The source port is connected to the HV-cable on the left-side (referred as
“Near-End”) and the receiver port is connected to the HV-cable on the
right-side (referred as “Far-End”). To have maximum possible measureable
frequency i.e. cut-off frequency (

Comparison of

Transfer impedance of a HV shielded cable (Coroplast 35 mm

Figure 3 shows, at low frequency measured

Over the entire measured frequency range, the results from all three methods
show qualitatively equal trend with little differences at higher frequencies
except for Bedea Triaxial method (which has

Combined analytical and circuit model for a shielded cable.

Due to complex structure of the braided shield, the measurements are the most
reliable method of determining the

Analytical models show an ideal behavior for

Transfer impedance analytical models are combined with circuit models. It
simulates the variation in measured results due to measurement setup. The
combined circuit model for shielded cable is implemented in the circuit
simulation program QUCS (Quite Universal Circuit Simulator,

Additionally, errors in the measurement setup due to imperfect connections can also be modelled using proposed circuit model.

Verification of shielded cable model.

Effects of braid-wire thickness and variation in weave angle on

Comparison of ideal analytical model, combined circuit model from 10 kHz to
1 GHz and measured results from 10 kHz to 300 MHz are shown in Fig. 5.
Above

In this section, use of analytical model and measurements to do shielding analysis for improving shielding designs are discussed.

Based on the analytical model of Demoulin et al. (1981, i.e. Eqs. 4–7),
effects of varying shield parameters (i.e. braid wire diameter

As shown in Fig. 6a, variation of the single braid wire thickness affects the
low frequency region, i.e. the resistive part of

As discussed in current standards (IEC 62153-4-3, Annex-F), while using VNA
(or when both source and receiver have the ground at same point), presence of
ground loops affect the measurements results especially at low frequency
(

Improvements in the low frequency measurements using low-frequency ferrites.

Use of three windings through two ferrites lowers the starting measurable frequency down to 600 Hz. It was also observed that use of ferrites on either source or receiver side of the connecting cables (i.e. only on one side) is sufficient.

An alternative method, called Ground Plate Method (GPM), has been proposed
with improvements for Transfer impedance measurements and is compared with
Triaxial and Line Injection methods. Triaxial Method works well but with
variable size of cables and connectors different sizes of measurement tubes
or Triaxial cells are required. On contrary, Line Injection Method (LIM)
gives a simple test setup but is not well suited for measuring

For low-frequency measurements the influence of ground-loops could be
reduced by using low-frequency ferrites. Apart from measurements an
analytical

For future works and integration into existing standard like e.g. IEC 62153-4, additional steps to characterize and finalize physical dimensions of the test setup and measurement of different types of DUTs are required.Edited by: F. Gronwald Reviewed by: R. Rambousky and two anonymous referees