A CMOS integrated impedance-to-frequency converter for sensing cellular adhesion
- 1Corporate Research and Technologies, Siemens AG, Munich, Germany
- 2Lehrstuhl für Technische Elektronik, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Abstract. Sensing cellular adhesion via impedance measurements provides a versatile and easily accessible means for monitoring in-vitro cell cultures. Previous works used external electronics connected via cables to microelectrodes to achieve this goal, thus incurring parasitic impedance, electromagnetic interference, and bulky measurement setups. In this work we present a CMOS impedance-to-frequency converter integrated with biocompatible planar surface electrodes to make a compact and robust sensor chip for in-vitro cell monitoring. The system features an 8×8 array of individually addressable electrodes connected to four impedance-to-frequency converter circuits with externally adjustable biasing and square wave output. We present first measurement results obtained with the integrated electronics that demonstrate the successful operation of the system and show good agreement with models of the electrode and cell impedances.