Non-linear behaviour of charge-pump phase-locked loops
- 1Fraunhofer ENAS, Department Advanced System Engineering (ASE), Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
- 2University of Paderborn, Department of Sensor Technology Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
Abstract. The analysis of the mixed analogue and digital structure of charge-pump phase-locked loops (CP-PLL) is a challenge in modelling and simulation. In most cases the system is designed and characterized using its continuous linear model or its discrete linear model neglecting its non-linear switching behaviour. I.e., the time-varying model is approximated by a time-invariant representation using its average dynamics. Depending on what kind of phase detector is used, the scopes of validity of these approximations are different. Here, a preeminent characterization and simulation technique based on the systems event-driven feature is presented, merging the logical and analogue inherent characteristics of the system. In particular, the high-grade non-linear locking process and the dead-zone are analyzed.